The Problem with Risk Scores and a Risk Matrix

risk score risk matrix image

Increasingly year-on-year health and safety management is incorporating lots of statistics that are recorded, monitored and reported on a regular basis using health and safety software. This software improves management and ensures things are not forgotten, particularly if like Smartlog, risk assessments automatically assign tasks to individuals and remind them via email so that they take corrective action. On the other hand it can be considered that too much focus on statistics, in particular risk scores in a risk matrix can hide certain hazards by focusing on other hazards due to their numeric values. Moreover whilst statistics and reporting are great to measure progress and identify frequently occurring accidents, it is evident that the majority of time in health and safety management should be on prevention by design, planning and training.

Whilst risk assessments that feature risk scores can list a multitude of different levels of hazards for identification and review purposes, they create confusion over what is the most likely to happen and what is the highest severity of harm, as peoples’ perceptions of risk and severity differ. Risk assessment categorisation of risk focusing on likelihood and injury severity together under the term priority and then setting normal or high priority is a better system as issues are fixed quicker based on priority and not based on the subjective aspect of severity which is circumstantial in every case. For example tripping on the stairs because of a worn surface can be unlikely and can often only result in minor injury accidents however it can also result in death; this highlights the potential issue with risk scores in a risk matrix which might rate this with a low numerical value for both likelihood and severity.

An Outdated System?

In health & safety management risk scores and the risk matrix structure could be considered as a 20th century management tool originating from paper based risk assessments as a way of highlighting risk within the lines and columns on a paper risk assessment to decide which should be considered first. With 21st century cloud based health and safety software like Smartlog, risks are automatically moved to the top a priority action list and removed when they are resolved. Today’s quick priority identification and resolution via software means it is questionable what purpose risk scores achieve in today’s era of health and safety management with quick software that can facilitate quick corrective action if it’s designed that way.

The concept of risk and risk assessments has a long history. More than 2400 years ago the Athenians offered their capacity of assessing risk before making decisions and over the years it has become central to keeping people and operations safe. The introduction of The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 and The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 introduced documentation and management rules however there is no mention in these two pieces of legislation about the use of risk scores or a risk matrix in risk assessments.

Analysis – HSE

In fact risk scores and risk matrices are not mentioned in any health and safety legislation. Risk score matrices are mentioned on the HSE website but it’s only written that a risk matrix can be used, not that they must be used. In the Risk Management FAQs part of the HSE website here: they have written:

‘Most businesses will not need to use risk matrices. However, they can be used to help you work out the level of risk associated with a particular issue. They do this by categorising the likelihood of harm and the potential severity of the harm. This is then plotted in a matrix (please see below for an example). The risk level determines which risks should be tackled first.
Using a matrix can be helpful for prioritising your actions to control a risk. It is suitable for many assessments but in particular to more complex situations. However, it does require expertise and experience to judge the likelihood of harm accurately. Getting this wrong could result in applying unnecessary control measures or failing to take important ones.’

(Accessed 19/11/2018)

The HSE explicitly mention here that getting risk scores wrong can result in failing to take important control measures. This is the issue and danger with using risk scores.

The HSE do not state that a score or colour rating of risk about the likelihood of risk occurring or severity is needed or that score and colour needs to be recorded or have a matrix. There is no mention of it on HSE’s website, in risk assessment examples from the HSE or in health and safety legislation. Moreover there is no mention of it in their risk assessment guide, HSE document indg163.

The image of the risk matrix shown in the HSE’s mention of risk matrices on their website shows the complexity and subjectivity issue of deciding on a combined numeric value and colour for a risk. This is an example of a 3×3 grid matrix; when a grid gets larger e.g. 10×10 there can be the possibility of even more confusion, differences in opinion and lack of consistency in scoring amongst people.

risk matrix risk score hse website screenshot

An article in IOSH magazine from an independent health and safety consultant also mentions that ‘in most cases it is not possible to quantify either the likelihood or the severity with such accuracy, we make relative judgements’ furthermore she writes that:

‘To avoid confusion, ditch the numbers and replace “mostly harmful”, “unlikely” and so on with descriptions that match your organisation’s risk profile, and simply use the coloured areas to categorise the risk bands.’

Clearly it is also questionable as to what purpose the colours even serve if high and normal priority settings are used with health & safety management software that facilitates speedy corrective action in a priority list format. In summary she also concludes her article by writing ‘Poorly understood severity and likelihood categories and arbitrary risk bands will lead us to draw the wrong conclusions.’

Similarly the author of the article also presented a presentation named ‘What is significant risk?’ at the 11 February 2014 IOSH London Metropolitan Branch Meeting. This presentation sought to highlight the issues and over complexity of quantitative risk assessment (QRA) risk matrices based on risk scores amongst IOSH members.

Moreover the same author mentioned in another IOSH magazine article that ‘In most cases, we don’t have enough reliable data for QRA. Rather than sticking numbers on to categories and mistakenly calling assessments quantitative or semi-quantitative, we should be proud of producing high-quality qualitative risk assessments.’ Risk assessment that focuses on high and low priority allocation of corrective action and descriptive text from hazard assessment rather than numbers is qualitative rather than quantitative.

Regarding risk assessment methodology it is Safesmart’s view that you should choose a qualitative risk assessment so not to come across the issues of risk scores in the prioritisation of corrective action tasks based on over complexity via numbers in a risk matrix structure.

As you can see in the HSE’s risk assessment template there is no mention of risk scores or a risk matrix:

HSE risk assessment template

The HSE’s sample template can be found under resources here:

INDG163 is the HSE’s legal guidance for completing risk assessments.

In document INDG163, The HSE state that in a risk assessment you need to:

– Identify the hazards
– Decide who might be harmed and how
– Evaluate the risks and decide on precautions
– Record your significant findings
– Review your risk assessment and update if necessary.

Regarding HSE legal requirements for risk assessment it is important to remember that there is no required format for risk assessment so long as within the format you can achieve these aspects mentioned in INDG163.

INDG163 no mention of risk score risk matrix

Evaluate the risks and decide on precautions:

In this section on p2 of HSE document INDG163, it does not specify that a risk likelihood, severity score, colour rating or risk matrix needs to be recorded. It just mentions that you have to decide ‘how likely it is that harm will occur and what to do about it.’

On p2 of HSE document INDG163 in the ‘Evaluate the risks’ information section it states:

‘Having identified the hazards, you then have to decide how likely it is that harm will occur, ie the level of risk and what to do about it. Risk is a part of everyday life and you are not expected to eliminate all risks. What you must do is make sure you know about the main risks and the things you need to do to manage them responsibly.’

Record your significant findings

When recording a risk assessment, the HSE state on p3 of INDG163 that ‘any record produced should be simple and focused on controls’. They state you need to ‘record of your significant findings – the hazards, how people might be harmed by them and what you have in place to control the risks.’

The passage reads:

‘Record your significant findings, Make a record of your significant findings – the hazards, how people might be harmed by them and what you have in place to control the risks. Any record produced should be simple and focused on controls.’

Putting hazards in order

On p4 of HSE document INDG163 it’s stated that the hazards identified need to be put in order of importance to address the most serious risks first.

The HSE state on p4 of INDG163 that:

‘If your risk assessment identifies a number of hazards, you need to put them in order of importance and address the most serious risks first.’

 By stating simply whether a hazard is normal or high priority it can be clearly and simply differentiated which hazards are high priority.


In addition to the HSE’s comments about the danger of using risk scores and a risk matrix the ‘Health and Safety Laboratory’ (HSL) the research arm of the HSE have also conducted research on behalf of the HSE about ‘Good practice and pitfalls in risk assessment’ in the 2003 research report 151 (RR151).

RR151 mentions the following pitfalls that seemingly could be the case with quantitative numeric focused risk assessment with risk scores and risk matrices:

• ‘Carrying out a detailed quantified risk assessment without first considering whether any relevant good practice was applicable, or when relevant good practice exists’

• ‘Making decisions on the basis of individual risk estimates when societal risk is the appropriate measure’

• ‘Inappropriate use of risk criteria’

RR151 risk score risk matrix post

Moreover on p32 under the title of individual risk measures RR151 mentions a problem with numerical risk scores in a matrix:

‘Each risk box in the matrix represents the combination of a particular level of likelihood and consequence, and can be assigned either a numerical or descriptive risk value (the risk estimate). If numerical consequence and likelihood category indicators are used, it is common to estimate the risk values as the product of the likelihood and consequence values, as a convenient way of ranking the risks. Care should be taken if such an approach is adopted as, for example, hazards of low severity and high likelihood will receive the same risk value as hazards with high severity and low likelihood. Although the risk values may be the same, the response to these different hazards in terms of priority for correction may be very different (St John Holt, 1999), and care therefore needs to be taken to ensure the method for estimating risk results in values or categories that can be interpreted appropriately.’

Furthermore where there is mention of quantitative numeric risk assessment on p14 in RR151 it is not mentioned as a legal requirement it is just written that:

Where the hazards presented by the undertaking are numerous and complex, and may involve novel processes, for example in the case of large chemical process plants or nuclear installations, detailed and sophisticated risk assessments will be needed, and it is appropriate to carry out a detailed quantitative risk assessment in addition to the simple qualitative assessment. Quantitative risk assessment (QRA) involves obtaining a numerical estimate of the risk from a quantitative consideration of event probabilities and consequences (in the nuclear industry the term ‘probabilistic safety analysis’ is used in place of QRA).’

Regarding RR151 it is important to remember that ‘This report and the work it describes were funded by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). Its contents, including any opinions and/or conclusions expressed, are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily reflect HSE policy.’

But ‘it is hoped that this report will provide useful guidance for Inspectors involved in the assessment of industry risk assessments on the appropriateness of the adopted approaches, and also to practitioners in industry involved in the process of carrying out workplace risk assessments of how to avoid common pitfalls.’

There is a lot of research online that criticises the use of a risk matrix and we encourage you to research and read this to understand the issues.

Examples of academic texts include Louis Anthony Tony Cox of the University of Colorado Department of Biostatistics and Informatics who wrote a journal article in 2008 for Risk Analysis the official publication of the Society for Risk Analysis in which risk matrix limitations are listed – the abstract of this journal article called ‘What’s Wrong with Risk Matrices?’ can be viewed here

As well as this, a well written piece called ‘The Risk of Using Risk Matrices’ was published in September 2013 for the Society of Petroleum Engineers, SPE Economics and Management Journal. It was written by Philip Thomas, SPE, and Reidar B. Bratvold, SPE, University of Stavanger; and J. Eric Bickel, SPE, University of Texas at Austin. They have written in this article about risk matrices (RMs) saying that:

‘Despite these claimed advantages, we are not aware of any published scientific studies demonstrating that RMs improve risk-management decisions. However, several studies indicate the opposite: that RMs are conceptually and fundamentally flawed.’

Moreover this journal article is concluded with the following:

‘In this paper, we have illustrated and discussed inherent flaws in RMs and their potential impact on risk prioritization and mitigation. Inherent dangers such as risk-acceptance inconsistency, range compression, centering bias, and category-definition bias were introduced and discussed by Cox et al. (2005), Cox (2008), Hubbard (2009), and Smith et al. (2009). We have also addressed several previously undocumented RM flaws: ranking reversal, instability resulting from categorization differences, and the LF. These flaws cannot be corrected and are inherent to the design and use of RMs. The ranking produced by RMs was shown to be unduly influenced by their design, which is ultimately arbitrary. No guidance exists regarding these design parameters because there is very little to say. A tool that produces arbitrary recommendations in an area as important as risk management in O&G should not be considered an industry best practice.’

A summative key point to take from HSE INDG163 is that it’s written there that:

‘Any record produced should be simple and focused on controls’

Risk assessment risk scores are not simple and as the HSE says themselves ‘could result in applying unnecessary control measures or failing to take important ones.’ The other benefit of keeping risk assessments simple is that they can be understood and conducted by all to help improve health & safety management and awareness across a whole organisation. Engagement and awareness of staff in health and safety is proven to reduce the likelihood of accidents.

Does Smartlog have numeric risk score scales, colour coding or a risk matrix structure?

No, Smartlog has been designed to keep risk assessment simple and efficient in order help you improve safety quickly. In HSE document INDG163 on page 3 it’s actually stated that ‘any record produced should be simple and focused on controls’. Safesmart believe in safety through efficiency.

Smartlog’s qualitative risk assessment structure focuses on actions to improve safety and lower risk. Actions to correct hazards. Rather than having the option to give a numeric score or colour rating for a risk, Smartlog focuses on pass/fail questions with comments & images to ensure compliance and clearly show what action needs to be taken to improve safety via the selection of normal or high priority.

Scoring a risk out of 5 for example may mean that lower numbered risks are ignored or forgotten about. As mentioned earlier in this blog post, The HSE write online that ‘Getting this wrong could result in applying unnecessary control measures or failing to take important ones’.

Checks & Tests

Low risk hazards that may or may not have significant severity are still important and Smartlog ensures that all risks are clearly visible putting high importance hazards at the top of the interactive to-do list called ‘due checks & tests’ automatically based on answers to risk assessment questions and the selection of high or normal priority. Based on risk assessment answers, reminders are also sent to remind individuals to take corrective action, there are also reminder escalation levels so seniors are notified if action hasn’t been taken by tasked individuals. When corrective action is taken the due check & test is moved to complete and the risk assessment is updated accordingly so focus can again be on remaining corrective action that needs to be taken.

Safesmart’s view is that there is extensive difficulty in determining a score number for the likelihood and severity of risks as it’s a subjective process. As well as creating the issue of lower risk score hazards being forgotten, deliberation over scores can create confusion and waste time when the priority of a risk assessment is improving safety. Evidently time should be spent on this, not deliberating about the scoring of everything with a number or colour. Due to the nature of this subjectivity, discrepancy and difference in reporting by different individuals, issues are inherent in number & colour scoring of risk assessments. This means that compliance monitoring is affected, thus creating the possibility of confusion and misinformed decision as a consequence of scoring.


We hope reading this article has highlighted the issue of numeric risk scores and risk matrices. If you are still using a risk matrix with risk scores for your risk assessment process we urge you to reconsider and discover Safesmart’s Smartlog software. Our software is designed for fast and efficient risk assessment needed in today’s 21st century management environment that seeks to involve all in improving safety without unnecessary over complication and bureaucracy. Smartlog’s risk assessments are always live, always assigning corrective action and always helping to save lives.

Is Legionella Training a Legal Requirement? Is Legionella Training Needed?

Legionella training is a legal requirement for those who have a level of responsibility for the prevention & control of legionella. The HSE write section 50 of their L8 guidance about Legionella that ‘Inadequate management, lack of training and poor communication are all contributory factors in outbreaks of legionnaires’ disease. It is therefore important that the people involved in assessing risk and applying precautions are competent, trained and aware of their responsibilities.’

Furthermore on p14 HSE L8 mentions COSHH, regulations 8 and 12; Management Regulations, regulations 5, 7, 10 and 13; HSW Act, sections 2, 3 and 4 which ‘require employers to take reasonable steps to ensure that any control measures are properly used and applied. They require employees to make full and proper use of those control measures. Employers are also required to have arrangements in place for the management of health and safety, to have access to competent health and safety advice and to provide employees with suitable and sufficient information, instruction, and training.’

Legionella Training

Regarding legionella services & plumbing contractors, training is a requirement because of The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 Regulation 12 which state that ‘Every employer who undertakes work which is liable to expose an employee to a substance hazardous to health shall provide that employee with suitable and sufficient information, instruction and training.’

The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 Regulation 5 states precisely that ‘Every employer shall make and give effect to such arrangements as are appropriate, having regard to the nature of his activities and the size of his undertaking, for the effective planning, organisation, control, monitoring and review of the preventive and protective measures.’ Training staff who are going to have a level of responsibility for the prevention & control of legionella is evidently an appropriate arrangement for an employer to take regarding effective control and protective measures.

The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974: Part 1, Section 2, 1 states that ’It shall be the duty of every employer to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare at work of all his employees.’ & 2 c. the duty of every employer to provide such information, instruction, training and supervision as is necessary to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health and safety at work of employees. Moreover section 4 of HSW 1974 mentions it shall be the duty of each person who has, to any extent, control of premises to ensure that persons other than employees are safe and without risks to health. Those who are duty holders regarding legionella prevention & control therefore need to ensure that those staff with legionella management responsibility are adequately trained to help ensure the safety of employees and visitors to premises regarding the organisation and requirement for legionella risk assessment and if appropriate water testing by specialist contractors.

On their website the HSE highlight appropriate legionella training of appropriate staff by mentioning the self-reflective question one should ask – Are the roles and responsibilities of all staff involved in the control regime clearly defined in writing and have they all received appropriate training? (

Is legionella training a legal requirementThe frequency of training should be appropriate regarding peoples’ retention of information about legionella. New starters who will have a level of responsibility regarding legionella prevention & control should have training upon starting their role and Safesmart recommend that training for relevant staff isundertaken annually to refresh knowledge.

Legionnaires’ disease is a potentially fatal type of pneumonia, contracted by inhaling airborne water droplets containing viable Legionella bacteria. Such droplets can be created, for example, by: hot and cold water outlets; atomisers; wet air conditioning plant; and whirlpool or hydrotherapy baths.

Legionella awareness training helps to reduce the risk of people contracting legionnaires’ disease by improving awareness amongst management and duty holders. Legionella training is also important to ensure those liable are aware of legal requirements for example within HSE L8, HSG274 & HSG282 as well The Notification of Cooling Towers and Evaporative Condensers Regulations 1992 which require employers to notify the local authority, in writing, if they operate a cooling tower or evaporative condenser and include details about where they are located. The Regulations also require notification when such devices are no longer in use. Notification forms are available from your local environmental health department.

Safesmart provide online legionella awareness training via Smartlog and legionella risk assessment and associated services through our specialist subcontractor.

Contact us for details.

Fire Risk Assessment Frequency – How Often?

Fire Safety Management and Fire Risk Assessment must be Improved. This blog post is to raise awareness and highlight employers obligations.

Tragedies like Grenfell can be prevented by improving fire safety management. Fire risk assessment, fire safety engineering, evacuation planning, training and fire equipment maintenance all needs to improve. Fire risk assessment procedures along with health & safety software systems can help this, ensuring traceability, an audit trail and the facilitation of risk assessment & corrective action through automated reminders.

To provide a statistical example: The Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service mention stats from a DfE publication stating that in 2015 there were more than 600 fires in British Schools and each large fire causes £1.5M of damage on average, according to insurers.*

The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 covers general fire safety in England and Wales. In Scotland, requirements on general fire safety are covered in Part 3 of the Fire (Scotland) Act 2005, supported by the Fire Safety (Scotland) Regulations 2006. Article 3 of The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 clearly states that employers have fire safety responsibility.
Failure to comply with fire safety legislation is a criminal offence.

For fire safety compliance you must:

Carry out a fire risk assessment.

Ensure sufficient training as fire safety training is a legal requirement for all staff.

Have fire safety arrangements and an evacuation plan.

Ensure provision of information to employees.

Have appropriate fire safety equipment installed and maintained.

The HSE clearly state on their website that:

‘As an employer (and/or building owner or occupier) you are required to carry out and maintain a fire safety risk assessment. This is under the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005, which applies in England and Wales, and under Part 3 of the Fire (Scotland) Act. The fire safety assessment can be carried out either as a separate exercise or as part of a single risk assessment covering other health and safety risks.
You need to make sure that, based on the findings of the assessment, you take adequate and appropriate fire safety measures to minimise the risk of injury or loss of life in the event of a fire.’

– ( – Frequently asked question – ‘what do I have to do in terms of fire safety’)

Legislation doesn’t state a precise frequency for conducting a fire risk assessment

However Article 9, (3) of The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 states that it needs to be kept up to date and done again if there has been significant change in the environment:
‘Any such assessment must be reviewed by the responsible person regularly so as to keep it up to date and particularly if—
(a)there is reason to suspect that it is no longer valid; or
(b)there has been a significant change in the matters to which it relates including when the premises, special, technical and organisational measures, or organisation of the work undergo significant changes, extensions, or conversions, and where changes to an assessment are required as a result of any such review, the responsible person must make them.’

The HSE state on their website that:

‘You should review your risk assessment:
• if it is no longer valid
• if there has been a significant change
Your workplace will change over time. You are likely to bring in new equipment, substances and procedures. There may be advances in technology. You may have an accident or a case of ill health. You should review your assessment if any of these events happen.
Remember to amend your assessment as a result of your review.
There is no set frequency for carrying out a review. ‘
– ( – Frequently asked question – ‘When should I review my risk assessment’ )

Frequent Fire Risk Assessment is best to improve safety

It is also important to be able to demonstrate your compliance should you receive a visit from the HSE or a Fire Officer. Safesmart recommend that the responsible person completes a fire risk assessment at least once per year or when there has been a significant change in the environment as mentioned in Article 9, (3) of The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005.

If you would like advice about fire risk assessment frequency, perhaps regarding how often to do a fire risk assessment in changing environments, contact us to speak to our fire safety consultants. Our consultancy can help you make sense of Fire and Health & Safety and regulations to ensure your business is meeting its obligations. Click our solutions menu to see all the fire safety and health & safety services we provide as well as our fire safety engineering: extinguishers, alarms etc. Discover easier fire safety management with Smartlog too.


  2. The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005:

DSE Training

DSE Training Article Picture

DSE stands for Display Screen Equipment.

This article provides insight into DSE Training and answers frequently asked questions regarding UK legislation.

For more information about our DSE online training course on Smartlog, click here.

The HSE state that DSE Training is a legal requirement for all staff who look at desktop computer screens, laptops, mobile phones, tablets and any other appropriate display screen equipment ‘for continuous or near-continuous spells of an hour’ [1]  These people are called DSE users.

 It is the legal duty of all employers to provide Display Screen Equipment Training.

Failure to provide adequate DSE training is a breach of DSE regulations meaning employers may face prosecution and fines. Providing DSE training also helps protect you from liability claims from employees; for example perhaps regarding back pain from working position.

There are various benefits of DSE Training such as reducing the likelihood of postural and visual problems, as well as fatigue and stress. When a work environment is more comfortable, productivity and employee satisfaction is also likely to increase.

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE), the UK authority for health and safety state legal requirements about Display Screen Equipment in document L26 the Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 as amended by the Health and Safety (Miscellaneous Amendments) Regulations 2002.[2]

What is DSE Training?

DSE training stands for display screen equipment training. It is a form of training to inform DSE users how best to use the equipment and how best to position themselves in relation to the equipment. Its purpose is to lower the risk of posutural and visual problems as well as fatigue and stress. [3]

Is DSE training a legal requirement?

Yes the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) document L26, Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 as amended by the Health and Safety (Miscellaneous Amendments) Regulations 2002 states on page 8 that display screen equipment training is required for all staff using display screen equipment

‘for continuous or near-continuous spells of an hour’. [1]

Who does the HSE regard as DSE users?

On p8 of HSE document L26.

The HSE state that people in these situations need DSE Training:

‘It will generally be appropriate to

classify the person concerned as a user or operator if they:

(a) normally use DSE for continuous or near-continuous spells of an hour or

more at a time; and

(b) use DSE in this way more or less daily; and

(c) have to transfer information quickly to or from the DSE;

and also need to apply high levels of attention and concentration; or are highly

dependent on DSE or have little choice about using it; or need special training

or skills to use the DSE.’ [1]

What is classed as DSE Equipment?

In document L26 the HSE have stated that:

‘ “display screen equipment” means any alphanumeric or graphic display screen ’ [4]

The most common type of display screen equipment in the work environment are desktop computers. It must also be remembered that laptops, mobile phones, tablets and Point of Sale computer tills or tablet size screen displays are also classed as display screen equipment.

What is not classed as DSE Equipment?

The HSE mention in general that tablet style interfaces for public usage and not workstations for individuals are exempt as well as small screen old style cash registers. However it must be remembered that work station areas Point of Sale (POS) systems and tills areas with tablet of desk top computer screens do come under DSE Regulations and therefore DSE training applies in accordance with prolonged usage;  ‘for continuous or near-continuous spells of an hour’. [1]

On page 11 of HSE document L26 it states that:

 Nothing in these Regulations shall apply to or in relation to –

(a) drivers’ cabs or control cabs for vehicles or machinery;

(b) display screen equipment on board a means of transport;

(c) display screen equipment mainly intended for public operation;

(d) portable systems not in prolonged use;

(e) calculators, cash registers or any equipment having a small data or

measurement display required for direct use of the equipment; or

(f) window typewriters.

21 Where any of the exclusions in regulation 1(4) apply, none of the duties

imposed by the DSE Regulations will apply to or in connection with the use of the

equipment that is excluded. However, the proviso at paragraph 8 applies here too.

Employers should still ensure that, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health

and safety of those using the equipment are not put at risk. The general duties on

employers and others under the HSW Act, and other general health and safety

legislation (see paragraphs 6-8), are still applicable and particular attention should

be paid to ergonomics in this context. Ergonomics7 is the science of making sure

that work tasks, equipment, information and the working environment are suitable

for every worker, so that work can be done safely and productively. Ergonomic

factors relevant to DSE work are discussed further in Appendix 1.


Is DSE Training just for desktop computers and work space setup or is it for laptops too?

DSE training does incorporate workstation set up and it is for both desktop computers and laptop computers as well as mobiles and tablets when applicable regarding usage time length.

Regarding laptops in particular in appendix 3 of HSE document L26, p50 it’s written: ‘Portable DSE, such as laptop and notebook computers, is subject to the DSE Regulations if it is in prolonged use.’ [6]

Prolonged use is what’s stated on p8 of the same document ‘for continuous or near-continuous spells of an hour’ [1]

I use a Phone or Tablet, do I need to do DSE training?

On page 13 of HSE document L26 it’s stated that DSE training is needed for mobile phones and tablet (personal organiser) usage when applicable. ‘mobile phones and personal organisers that can be used to compose and edit text, view images or connect to the Internet. Any prolonged use of such devices for work purposes will be subject to the DSE Regulations and the circumstances of such cases will need to be individually assessed.’

The HSE write clearly that ‘It cannot be assumed that such devices, having much of the functionality of full-sized DSE, are excluded because their screens are ‘small’. However, mobile phones that are in prolonged use only for spoken conversation are excluded under regulation 1(4)(e) because their display screens are incidental to this kind of use.’ [7]

Regarding ‘prolonged use’ and ‘individually assessed’. Prolonged use is what’s stated on p8 of the same document, ‘for continuous or near-continuous spells of an hour’. [1]

When does DSE training need to be given?

All current staff who are DSE users need to do DSE training and before new employees start work they need to complete DSE training. This is stated in regulation 6 of HSE document L26. ‘Every employer shall ensure that each user at work in his undertaking is provided with adequate health and safety training whenever the organisation of any workstation in that undertaking upon which he may be required to work is substantially modified.’ [8]

In paragraph 90 of document L26 it’s written:

‘Newly recruited users, and existing employees whose duties are

changing in a way that will make them become users, should be given training

before they start doing the work that will make them a user.’ [9]

Before doing DSE training a risk assessment of the DSE area needs to be done. Answers to FAQs regarding risk assessment can be found here

How often should risk assessments of DSE workstations be done?

The HSE state online on their webpage titled ‘FAQs – Display Screen Equipment’ that:

‘An assessment should be done when a new workstation is set up, when a new user starts work, or when a substantial change is made to an existing workstation (or the way it is used). Assessments should be repeated if there is any reason to suspect they may no longer be valid – for example, if users start complaining of pain or discomfort.’ [10]

How often should DSE training be done?

The HSE state that DSE training should be done whenever there is a change in the workstation environment, change of DSE device, period of absence from work suffered from related health conditions. To ensure the safety of your employees Safesmart also advise that DSE users complete training at least once a year and also when it is identified that a DSE user is using their equipment in a way that may damage their health.

In paragraph 93 on p30 of HSE document L26 is states that: ‘Training will need to be adapted to the requirements of the particular DSE tasks, be adapted to users’ skills and capabilities and be refreshed or updated as the hardware, software, workstation, environment or job are modified. (A

workstation should be regarded as having been ‘substantially modified’ for the

purposes of regulation 6(2) if there has been a significant change to it, as set out

in paragraph 45.) Where people have been absent from work for long periods,

consider if special training or retraining is needed as part of their rehabilitation,

particularly if they have suffered from visual, musculoskeletal or stress-related ill

health. Organisations should develop systems for identifying the occasions when

any of these needs for training arise.’ [11]

Can our office manager just do the DSE training?

Yes they can however it must be ensured that the content is sufficient to comply with DSE regulations. Online training courses help ensure the completeness and consistency of training to help ensure compliance. Competent training must be provided.

Does the HSE allow online courses for DSE training, no need for on-site training too?

In document indg345[12], the HSE state that they allow online health and safety training and they do not state that you also need on-site training for any type of health and safety training, online training is sufficient. It is only First Aid Training which needs to be practical and on-site. [13]

The training just has to be appropriate and adequate.

In HSE document indg345 the HSE state that:

‘The Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 requires you to provide whatever

information, instruction, training and supervision as is necessary to ensure, so far as

is reasonably practicable, the health and safety at work of your employees.’ [12]

‘Everyone who works for you needs to know how to work safely and without risks to health. You must provide clear instructions and information, and adequate training, for your employees.’ [14]

HSE document indg345 states that:

On p4: ‘Don’t forget that though there are many external trainers who can help you, much effective training can be done ‘in-house’.

On p4 it also mentions that the following methods can be used for health and safety training:

‘Choose your training methods and resources

Choose your methods, for example:

▬ giving information or instruction;

▬ coaching or on-the-job training;

▬ training in the ‘classroom’;

▬ open and distance learning;

▬ in groups or individually; and

▬ computer-based or interactive learning’ [12]

Does some form of DSE training need to be done before online DSE training can be done?

No it is perfectly acceptable to do online DSE training in the first instance. Part of DSE training is using the DSE equipment for the first time to adjust it and ensure it is comfortable for the individual to use long term.

What is the consequence of not doing DSE training?

Failure to provide DSE training for DSE users is a breach of the HSE Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 as amended by the Health and Safety (Miscellaneous Amendments) Regulations 2002. This means that if employers, who are ultimately responsible for the health and safety of their employees, don’t ensure the provision of DSE training they may face prosecution and fines. A £20,000 fine used to be the case for most health and safety offences however employers now face unlimited fines for serious breaches of health and safety legislation employers and can also face imprisonment. Providing DSE training also helps protect you from liability claims from employees; for example perhaps regarding back pain from working position.

See the following link for information about HSE sentencing penalties regarding prosecution and fines:

Online DSE Training

Safesmart’s Health and Safety Management Software called Smartlog features online training courses. DSE Training is one of the 20 online training courses provided on Smartlog, which is for unlimited users at an affordable fixed price per year. Click here to find out more:

If you have any further questions about health and safety or DSE training in particular, please contact us.


[1] – P8, paragraph 15,  (accessed 09/06/2017)

[2] –  (accessed 09/06/2017)

[3] – P19, paragraph 48,  (accessed 09/06/2017)

[4] – p6,  (accessed 09/06/2017)

[5] – p11 (accessed 09/06/2017)

[6] -p50,appendix 3, (accessed 09/06/2017)

[7] – p13, paragraph 25, (accessed 09/06/2017)

[8] – p29, regulation 6, (accessed 09/06/2017)

[9] – p30, paragraph 90, (accessed 09/06/2017)

[10] – HSE -FAQs – Display Screen Equipment, (accessed 09/06/2017)

[11] – p30, paragraph 93, (accessed 09/06/2017)

[12] – Health and safety training – indg345,

[13] – HSE- First aid training providers, (accessed 09/06/2017)

[14] – HSE – Provide training and information (accessed 09/06/2017)

School Health and Safety Training

School Health and Safety Training Cover

School Health and Safety Training

School Health and Safety Training p2

Original written for and published in: THE VOICE – Issue 14/ Spring 17  The National Association of School Business Management Magazine

Health and safety training is a legal requirement for all organisations. To ensure a safe working and learning environment in schools and comply with legal obligations, ongoing health and safety training is essential. There are many school health and safety training options available, including classroom, on-site, off-site and online. Paul J Williams and Tom Southern from Safesmart, a NASBM Approved Partner for health and safety software and services, consider why and how online school health and safety training systems can improve efficiency.

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) reminds us that legislation(1) requires employers to provide suitable information, instruction, training and supervision to ensure employees are equipped with sufficient skills, knowledge and experience to prevent them from coming to harm in the workplace. ‘The Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 requires you to provide whatever information, instruction, training and supervision necessary to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health and safety at work of your employees.’(2)

This is extended by the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999, which identify situations where health and safety (H&S) training is particularly important, for example when people start work, on exposure to new or increased risks and where existing skills may have become rusty or need updating.

In school, the following examples of H&S training are needed as a legal requirement: Fire Awareness, Display Screen Equipment, Manual Handling, First Aid, and Safeguarding Children. Others are required depending on staff roles. Effective training contributes to making staff competent in H&S and helps schools avoid the distress and sadness caused by accidents and ill health, as well as the financial implications.

To avoid non-compliance, a record of H&S training should be kept up to date, with details of who in your school has completed which training course, which staff are trained sufficiently and whether their certificates or licences are still current? Some schools have a number of paper files holding personnel details and copies of certificates, often only having adhoc monitoring of who needs a training refresher. This may be suitable for very small schools but when you expand and have more staff, paper-based systems become ineffective and inefficient. and tracking expiry and renewal requirements becomes more and more time consuming.

The most efficient way of logging who has undertaken the required school health and safety training, is with a software system that can record the progress of an individual’s staff training with reminder functionality for taking ‘other’ training courses, thus avoiding non-compliance. Online training software improves efficiency further. Delivery is quick and precise, training can be completed more efficiently at a convenient time and pace, without the need for scheduling dedicated training days, which can save time and money, and completion of online courses can be registered easily. Moreover, document management functionality can ensure your H&S policy is seen by all.

Online training can also be interactive and engaging, helping to improve knowledge retention. According to CommLab India’s website, a gamified approach to safety training caused a 45 per cent reduction in safety incidents and claim counts at Pep Boys, a car garage chain. The website also states that learners had an 11 per cent higher factual-knowledge level, a 14 per cent higher skill-based knowledge level, and a 9 per cent higher retention rate as per a meta-analysis of instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games.(3)

A key efficiency from online training is cost saving, with some onsite H&S training costing several hundred pounds per day. Having information stored online in the cloud offers information security and means that data is not lost if an incident such as a fire occurs. This ensures an audit trail is still visible and that compliance can be shown. People are used to online platforms and online learning ensures training consistency amongst all staff.

Ultimately, the efficiency and effectiveness of online training systems allow more time to be spent educating and inspiring pupils.

The following may help you to decide which H&S training software is right for you:

Safesmart is a NASBM Approved Partner for health and safety software and services (


(1) and (2) HSE INDG345 (Health and Safety Executive), p1,


Effective training contributes to making school staff competent in H&S and helps schools avoid the distress and sadness caused by accidents and ill health, as well as the financial implications.

Online training can also be interactive and engaging, helping to improve knowledge retention.

Top tips:

A: Schools need to keep an up-to-date record of who has completed H&S training and when.

B: Using online training software saves your school time and money and can help knowledge retention.

Choosing Health and Safety Software

Choosing Health and Safety Software

Health and Safety Software helps organisations manage compliance with functionality such as risk assessments, maintenance checks, incident reporting and training. Good H&S software should make legal compliance efficient and ensure that there is an audit trail. It should also be good value for money.

When choosing health and safety software there are various different providers and decision making can be difficult. This Blog Post outlines key things to think about when choosing Health and Safety Software.

Health and Safety Software can be tailored to the needs of your organisation from schools and universities to healthcare and hospitality. The level of tailoring and customisation depends on the provider. Equally for services such as consultancy, assessment, safety equipment supply and servicing the provider’s background and experience should be carefully considered to ensure it matches your sector requirements.

Key points to consider when choosing Health and Safety Software:

Remember the Acronym: F A S T   U S P    or   A P T    F U S S

Functionality, Accessibility, Scalability, Technology              Users, Support, Price


– Legal compliance
– Audit trail
– Online or offline
– Mobile and device optimisation
– Risk assessments, custom and templates
– Build your own functionality
– Photo evidence
– Document management, policies etc.
– Site maintenance checks and tests, custom and templates
– Reminder notification, escalation functionality (email/text/phone)
– H&S Training Courses, topics covered, bespoke development.
– Accident and Incident Reporting (RIDDOR)
– Software and Training Course Accreditation
– Industry and specific requirements
– Organisational structure
– Association recommendation


– Ease of use
– Loading speed
– Language
– Help prompts/guides
– Login functionality
– Security


– Multiple sites
– Number of users
– International sites
– Cloud storage space
– Management structure


– Software speed
– Software reliability
– Software Integration
– Apps, mobile, tablet functionality
– Server security
– Software encryption
– ISO Accreditation
– Virus protection
– Back up server
– Device (e.g. tablet) provision
– Continual upgrades


– Branding customisation
– Cost for number of users
– Adding users
– User Language
– Check and Test Accountability
– User admin rights

Support :

– Software usage training
– Help and Instructional Information
– Customer Account Manager
– Good customer service
– Happy customers
– Customer retention rates
– Telephone, email, onsite support
– Organisational restructuring
– Adding sites and user management
– Building & digitising risk assessments plus Maintenance Checks
– Building bespoke H&S Training Courses


– Per module cost or All in One Package
– Cost per site
– Annual/Monthly Subscription
– Contract period
– Discounts available
– Servicing and software packages
– Software upgrading included

The above summary highlights the key things that should be considered when choosing health and safety software.

Additionally software demonstration and free trial periods should be taken before making a decision to see which software is right for you.

Ultimately, price is a key factor and if suppliers also offer services such as on-site assessment, audits, training, consultancy, fire equipment supply etc. Packages can be negotiated and significant cost saving can be achieved.

We hope that you choose the solution that it right for you.

Safesmart’s Smartlog Software caters for many different organisations requirements and the fact that we are the only Preferred Supplier for the Association of School and College Leaders (ASCL) and a NASBM approved partner highlights the suitability of our software for varying environments that feature in the education sector.

As well as the education sector we supply NHS establishments and work with various care homes and hospitality venues. As well as online software, Safesmart also offers fire equipment: inspection, maintenance and installation for things like: extinguishers, alarms, fire doors etc.
Contact us for more information:
01908 320 152

A School Trip You Don’t Want to Go On

A robust health and safety policy is paramount to any organisation, but those working in the education sector will understand the magnitude of responsibility they have to ensure a safe learning and working environment for not only their students and staff but for the many contractors and visitors who may be on the premises at different times of the day.

Educational establishments are fairly unique as many will contain a variety of different buildings over one, or sometimes multiple sites, and there will most probably be grounds for sports.  These premises will also be host to a multitude of events over the academic year with varying numbers of extra visitors to the site.  Add into the equation children of any age and it’s enough to test the hardiest of Health & Safety Managers, however this responsibility usually falls to one or more individuals as just a small part of their normal job role.

According to the Health & Safety Executive, you can attribute 55% of health and safety-related accidents to trips and falls, and that percentage is just for the education sector.  90% of those accidents result in a broken bone, and some of them will be life changing for the injured party.

Slips and trips unfortunately are inevitable.  People fall; it’s human nature.  I’m clumsy, I know firsthand. However, that isn’t an acceptable excuse and if the right precautions and measures are implemented, some of those accidents can be prevented.

When conducting your regular risk assessments pay particular attention to slip and trip hazards on your premises, both within the school buildings and the grounds.  The HSE states the most common areas for these accidents to occur are corridors and outdoor areas, followed by stairs, but this will be different for each establishment.  Historical incident records will give you an indication of areas where changes may need to be made.

Next, identify who may be most at risk to slips and trips, taking into account staff, pupils and also external visitors to the site.  Identify what precautions are currently in place and decide if they are adequate or if additional measures need to be implemented. As with all risk assessments it’s important to document your findings as well as any action taken. You may find you need to change the matting in your entrances to minimise the amount of water being brought inside, or a change to specially designed slip resistant surfaces in high-risk corridor areas may be needed.  This can help to provide a permanent reduction in the amount of slip and trip accidents in that area.

The approach to slips and trip hazards needs to stretch further than just your risk assessment though, as there are so many people that are exposed to the risk and, as such, they should be involved.  Create a policy for your organisation that is dedicated to slips and trips.  Start the document with an outline of your organisation’s responsibilities, and then follow it by defining the responsibilities of key groups, such as pupils, caterers, cleaners, teachers and lecturers, maintenance staff and the board of governors.  Each group’s responsibilities will relate to their specific area of work and will include points such as reporting spills as a matter of urgency, wearing ‘sensible’ footwear, using the correct cleaning solutions for the type of flooring or simply maintaining a clear desk policy.

The way you communicate your policy is key for maximum engagement and you should ensure all stakeholders are trained appropriately.

Finally, by keeping an annual tab on slip and trip accidents you can directly attribute a decrease in them to the measures you have put in place and quickly identify any areas of concern in the future.

The HSE website contains a fantastic area of their website dedicated to slips and trips (here), and have also produced the leaflet Watch your step in Education, which has several detailed case studies and also practical advice of how to implement changes.

Safesmart can help avoid slips, trips and falls with our health and safety consultancy.

Our Smartlog software can also be used to do risk assessment for actual out of school trips.

RIDDOR – Reporting of Accidents and Incidents

Accidents within the workplace happen each and every day. This is to be expected, especially when we think of working environments with machinery or hazardous chemicals. However, the truth of the matter is that accidents can happen in any workplace, from building sites to offices and schools. Although this may be the case, many people fail to report these incidents to the HSE (Health and Safety Executive). A reason behind this could be the complexity of the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) which were put in place in 1995. According to RIDDOR, not all accidents need to be reported and this could be a source of confusion as to what constitutes as a reportable incident.

Who is affected?

You could be forgiven for thinking that RIDDOR only affects employees but this isn’t the case. Anyone within the workplace who is injured as a direct result of that environment is reportable. This includes employees, self-employed individuals and members of the public, e.g. customers, service users etc.


Although it is not necessary to report every incident or injury, it is recommended that all are recorded. This is an incredibly useful practice and can make it much easier to establish a timeline of events.

What should be reported?

Differentiating between what should and shouldn’t be reported can be tricky but it is necessary for compliance with RIDDOR.

Deaths of workers and non-workers which were directly caused by a work-related accidents should be reported. It should be noted that this doesn’t include suicide.

In terms of injuries, there is a complete list of ‘specified injuries’, all of which are reportable. These include fractures (other than digits), serious burns, loss of consciousness, amputations, scalping which requires hospital treatment, injuries which are likely to cause permanent loss of sight, injuries which cause damage to organs and incidents which lead to hypothermia or heat related illnesses.


Specific accidents should be reported if they lead to the incapacitation of a worker or self-employed individual for a number of consecutive days. For example, if an employee is unable to attend work for seven consecutive days due to an injury gained within the workplace, this should be reported. It should be noted that the day of the incident doesn’t count but weekends and rest days do.

If an employee is absent from work for three consecutive days, due to an injury gained within the workplace, this doesn’t have to be reported but it does have to be recorded. In accordance with the 1979 Social Security Regulations, an accident book should be kept for this reason.


Occupational diseases are those which are likely to have been caused by exposure to the workplace environment or activities completed within the workplace. Workers and self-employed individuals should report such diseases if they have been directly caused by their workplace. Ailments within this category include, asthma, hand arm vibration syndrome, carpel tunnel syndrome, dermatitis, cramp, tendonitis and cancer.

Dangerous Occurrences & Gas Incidents

Specific dangerous occurrences should be reported to the HSE, even if these incidents don’t lead to injury. Just some examples of the type of incidents in question include, the release of dangerous substances, the collapse of load bearing parts and equipment hitting power lines, as well as others.

Those that work with flammable gas, whether suppliers, distributers or fitters, are required to report any accidents involving gas. These can include death, a loss of consciousness and injuries which required treatment within a hospital.


Members of the public within the workplace can include customers, service users, students or even just passers-by. Accidents involving non-workers should be reported if it leads to them being taken straight to the hospital for treatment

Further information on RIDDOR can be found online.

Safesmart’s online Smartlog Software includes a log book for accident reporting (RIDDOR).

Can Office Lighting Affect My Workers?

Professional environments can have significant effects on workers with factors such as productivity, concentration, mood and even health at risk. Environmental factors can include temperature, space, air quality and lighting. Lighting is often an overlooked issue but it can be hugely influential to an employee and an overall workplace environment. We will take a look at how lighting can affect workers and what the best solution may be to combat this.


It may seem like an obvious point but different activities require different levels of brightness. The problem with this is that many workplace environments offer a standard brightness level, regardless of the work which is being completed. Work which requires high levels of concentration e.g. manufacture is going to require a different type of lighting to standard office work. Working under dim lighting can have a variety of drawbacks, especially if the work requires concentration. Under these circumstances the eyes are forced to work harder which can lead to strain, headaches, drowsiness and eventually a lull in productivity.

The solution to this particular problem is simple- tailor your lighting to the job at hand. Introducing dimmer switches will allow you to offer a range of different brightness levels and will offer a certain degree of control to employees.

Natural vs. Artificial

One of the main consequences of working indoors is the necessity of artificial lighting. Natural lighting can have biological and psychological effects on the body, for example when we are exposed to natural light the body realises its daytime and we feel awake and alert. This same cannot be said for artificial lighting which can confuse the body. As well as affecting alertness, it has been shown that artificial lighting can negatively affect mood, the immune system and even the endocrine system.

Combating this problem can be difficult as space comes at a premium and only so many windows can be installed within a building. Fortunately there are ways in which to get around this issue. For example introducing mirrors within strategic places can help to bounce natural light throughout the workplace. You could also consider basing a meeting place, such as a water cooler or eating area within a part of the building which receives lots of natural light. This way employees will be periodically exposed to this type of light, if only for a short amount of time. This is an incredibly important issue for business owners, as it has been shown that exposure to natural light and overall productivity are inextricably linked.


Due to location or orientation, some buildings have very little natural lighting, if any at all. When this is the case, artificial lighting is the only option and so choosing the right type becomes pivotal. Fluorescent lighting is a popular choice due to its energy efficiency and cheap running costs but it can be unforgiving in a working environment. LED bulbs are often a better option as they are available in a wide range of colours and brightness’s. They can also be connected with a phone or tablet and controlled via Bluetooth. This way, the colour and brightness of these lights can be changed at the tap of a button, offering a greater degree of versatility for working environments.

Utilising a variety of different lighting types could be the best solution. Mimicking natural light involves more than a standard overhead bulb. Placing lights within alcoves or even under desks can create a much more comfortable atmosphere and therefore more favourable working conditions.

A Guide to Fire Safety Information for Landlords

Landlords have many obligations when it comes to health and safety within their buildings and protection against fire is no different. The regulations which cover fire safety include both the Housing Act (2004) and the Regulatory Reform or Fire Safety Order (2005). In accordance with the Fire Safety Order, landlords or their equivalent (building managers, owners etc.) become the ‘responsible person’ of their premises. This person is obliged to complete a fire risk assessment for their property and make any necessary modifications in accordance with this assessment. The overall process can become quite complex due to the various combinations of factors which can affect many premises. With this in mind, the following is a quick and simple guide to fire safety information for landlords.


When completing a fire risk assessment, the landlord’s first step is to identify potential hazards and any individuals who could be at risk. When inspecting a property for hazards, the responsible person should look for three different things- sources of ignition, sources of fuel and oxygen. Sources of ignition can include everything from cigarettes and electrical equipment to candles and even lighting. Sources of fuel, which is basically everything but obviously highly flammable materials will be most at risk. Finally, the responsible person should take into account sources of oxygen but this will normally be the same across standard properties.

Another important aspect of the risk assessment is identifying the potential escape route available to residents and employees. The landlord should look into factors such as room arrangement, outdoor fire escapes and communal areas.

When identifying people at risk, the assessment should not only cover those that live or work at the premises but anyone who could possibly be there during a fire. This can include, friends, family members and custodial workers. The landlord should then assess how each person will escape the property in the event of fire. Considerations should be made to age, language barriers and disability as well as many other important factors.


Once all of the hazards have been identified as well as the people at risk, the responsible person should make the necessary changes to remove these hazards. Obviously, not all risk can be removed from an environment but the landlord can make all of reasonable modifications available. This can include a wide range of changes, including the installation of fire detection systems, extinguishers or even fire doors. Landlords may also have to create an emergency plan which include information on any special considerations given to particular individuals. All of those involved should be informed of these changes and the responsible person is obliged to offer further information. This can include fire safety tips for residents and possibly even training sessions for workers.


Safety measures are only effective as long as they still apply. It is for this reason that landlords are required to review their fire risk assessments regularly. The regularity of this review is up to the responsible person but the more frequent the better. Also, a review should be carried out immediately if any changes take place within the premises, e.g. new residents move in, the layout is changed, heating changes etc.

It should also be noted that the responsible person will have to complete a new fire risk assessment if there are any changes within the legislation (unless otherwise stated).

This is only a brief look at fire safety information for landlords. Much more information can be found online, including further details on the risk assessment process. Landlords can also find out more about the type of buildings which are affected by this legislation and whether this is relevant to them.

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